Russia’s brutal war of aggression against Ukraine has emphasised how important maintaining a credible deterrence and defence posture is – and how unprepared for this task most European states have long been.
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine marks the first time in world history when a state uses its nuclear arsenal as coercive leverage in a war of conquest. The reverberations are felt throughout the world.
The EU has rejected the language of spheres of influence in favour of an international order based on common rules rather than the power of the strongest. However, when it comes to the policy towards Russia, this rejection has been more evident in words than deeds.
Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine has had significant ripple effects in Indo-Pacific security dynamics and ongoing great-power competition.
Poland is on track to be one of Europe’s most significant military powers. This naturally has effects on both European and NATO security and leverage.
Policymakers believed that growing interdependence would encourage states to abandon power politics in favour of cooperation and global marketplace. This belief has now been broken.